1276 ~ Augsburg in Germany became a Free imperial city, which is a self-ruling city that has a certain amount of autonomy.

1776 ~ The Wealth of Nations by Scottish economist and philosopher Adam Smith was published.

1796 ~ Napoléon Bonaparte married Joséphine de Beauharnais, his 1st wife.

1815 ~ The 1st battery operated clock was described by Francis Ronalds in the Philosophical Magazine.

1842 ~ The 1st documented discovery of gold in California occurred at Rancho San Francisco. The California Gold Rush began 6 years later in 1848.

1933 ~ The Emergency Banking Act to Congress was submitted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the first of his New Deal policies, during the Great Depression.

1957 ~ The Andreanof Islands earthquake hit the Aleutian Islands with a severe maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII. Ground movement caused $5 million in damages, and a destructive tsunami affected Hawaii.

1959 ~ The Barbie doll debuted at the American International Toy Fair in New York, USA. At Eleven inches tall, with a waterfall of blond hair, Barbie was the 1st mass-produced toy doll in the United States with adult features. The woman behind Barbie was Ruth Handler, the co-founder of Mattel, Inc. When Ruth noticed her young daughter ignored her baby dolls to play make-believe with paper dolls of adult women, she realized there was an important niche in the market for a toy that allowed little girls to imagine the future.

1960 ~ Dr. Belding Hibbard Scribner implanted the first shunt, which he invented, into a patient, which allowed the patient to receive hemodialysis on a regular basis.

Today in History for March 9th (Associated Press video)