1700s / 18th century history on the 1st of July
1770 : LEXELL’s COMET passed closest to Earth than any other comet in recorded history, at a distance of only 0.015 astronomical units, 2.2 million kilometres (1.4 million miles). The comet was discovered by Charles Messier, a French astronomer.
1800s / 19th century history on the 1st of July
1819 : COMET TRALLES aka The Great Comet of 1819 was discovered by Johann Georg Tralles, in Berlin, Germany. The easily viewed brilliant comet was the first comet that was analyzed using polarimetry*by François Arago. *Polarimetry is the measurement and interpretation of the polarization of transverse waves, mostly electromagnetic waves in the form of radio or light waves.
1846 : Adolphe Sax patented the SAXOPHONE. The Belgian musician and inventor also invented the saxotromba, saxhorn and saxtuba. Aldolphe Sax was a flute and clarinet player.
1858 : Willard Metcalf the American landscape painter was born in Lowell, Massachusetts (died in 1925 aged 66). He was one of the 10 American Painters who seceded from the Society of American Artists in 1897.
1858 : Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace‘s papers on evolution were presented as a joint reading to the Linnean Society of London.
1860 : Charles Goodyear the American chemist died aged 59, after he collapsed when he was informed that his daughter had died (born in 1800). He was best known as the manufacturing engineer who developed vulcanized rubber, which he patented. The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company was named after Charles Goodyear.
1862 : The Russian State Library was founded as the Library of the Moscow Public Museum. It is the 5th largest library in the World with its 17.5 million books. The library has more than 275km of shelves, containing over 43 million items, including books, serial volumes, journals, music scores, sound recordings, and maps. The Russian State Library official website : RSL.ru/en | Address : Vozdvizhenka St., 3/5, Moskva, Russia
1863 : Ketikoti : Emancipation Day in Suriname marked the the date when slavery was abolished.
1863 : The Battle of Gettysburg began in Pennsylvania, during the American Civil War. The 3 day battle resulted in up to 51,000 deaths, which was almost one third of all the troops involved on both sides.
1873 : Prince Edward Island (PEi) joined into the Canadian Confederation. The 5,660 km2 island is a province of Canada, and has a population of 142,907 (2016 census). The capital city of Prince Edward Island is Charlottetown. Official websites : PrinceEdwardisland.ca | TourismPEi.com
1885 : Dorothea Mackellar (OBE) the Australian poet and fiction writer was born in Point Piper, Sydney. She is best known for her poem My Country, which is widely known in Australia, especially the 2nd stanza : “I love a sunburnt country, A land of sweeping plains, Of ragged mountain ranges, Of droughts and flooding rains. I love her far horizons, I love her jewel-sea, Her beauty and her terror – The wide brown land for me!.” Dorothea Mackellar died in 1968, aged 82.
1867 : CANADA DAY originally DOMiNiON DAY originated as an anniversary celebration of the Canadian Confederation which occurred on July 1st in 1867, when The British North America Act took effect as the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia joined into confederation, which created Canada as a modern nation. Sir John A. Macdonald was sworn in as the first Prime Minister of Canada.
1870 : The United States Department of Justice formally comes into existence.
1874 : The Sholes and Glidden typewriter aka Remington No. 1, became the first commercially successful typewriter to go on sale.
1879 : Charles Taze Russell published the 1st edition of the The Watchtower, religious magazine.
1881 : The world’s first international telephone call was made, between Canada and the United States (between St. Stephen in New Brunswick, and Calais in Maine).
1890 : Canada and Bermuda were linked by a telegraph cable.
1900s / 20th century history on the 1st of July
1903 : Tour de France bicycle race started for the first time.
1906 : Estée Lauder the American co-founder of the Estée Lauder Companies was born Josephine Esther Mentzer in Corona, Queens, New York City, USA (died in 2004 aged 95).
1908 : SOS was adopted as the international distress signal.
1916 : Dame Olivia de Havilland the British-American actress was born in Tokyo, Empire of Japan (died in 2020 aged 104). She was the oldest living Academy Award winner and the earliest surviving Academy Award winner, after acting in 49 feature films, as one of the leading actors in her time.
1931 : United Airlines started its service as Boeing Air Transport.
1931 : Wiley Post and Harold Gatty became the first people to circumnavigate the globe in a single-engined monoplane aircraft.
1932 : ABC : Australian Broadcasting Corporation was formed.
1934 : Sydney Pollack the American film director and actor was born in Lafayette, Indiana, USA (died in 2008 aged 73).
1942 : The Australian Federal Government became the sole collector of income tax in Australia, as a result of State Income Tax being abolished.
1945 : Debbie Harry aka Blondie the American singer-songwriter was born Angela Trimble in Miami, Florida, USA.
1949 : John Farnham (AO) the English-Australian singer-songwriter was born in Dagenham, Essex, England. Official website : JohnFarnham.com.au
1952 : Dan Aykroyd (CM, OOnt) the Canadian actor & comedian was born Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
1957 : The International Geophysical Year started. It was an international scientific project that lasted from 1 July 1957 to 31 December 1958.
“I.G.Y. (What a Beautiful World)” by Donald Fagen in 1982 is a song about an optimistic viewpoint during the iGY ~ International Geophysical Year, and features references to futuristic concepts, such as solar power, Spandex, space tourism, and an undersea international high-speed rail (see video below)…
1958 : The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation linked television broadcasting across Canada via microwave.
1958 : Saint Lawrence Seaway in Canada began the flooding process.
1961 : CARL LEWiS the American long jumper & runner was born Frederick Carlton Lewis in Birmingham, Alabama, USA. He is best known for winning 9 Olympic gold medals, 8 World Championships gold medals, during his 17 year athletic career from 1979 to 1996. Carl Lewis is 1 of only 3 Olympic athletes who have ever won a gold medal in the same individual event in 4 consecutive Olympic Games.
1961 : DiANA the Princess of Wales was born Diana Frances Spencer in Sandringham, Norfolk, England (died in 1997 aged 36).
1963 : ZiP codes were introduced for United States mail.
1963 : Nick Giannopoulos the Australian actor was born in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
1966 : The 1st color television transmission in Canada took place from Toronto.
1967 : Pamela Anderson the Canadian-American model and actress was born in Ladysmith, British Columbia, Canada. She is best known internationally for her starring role as C. J. Parker on the Baywatch television series from 1992 to 1997. Official website : PamelaAndersonFoundation.org
1968 : The United States Central Intelligence Agency’s Phoenix Program was officially established, to identify and destroy the Viet Cong, during the Vietnam War, involving the American, Australian and South Vietnamese militaries.
1971 : Missy Elliott the American singer and songwriter was born Melissa Arnette Elliot in Portsmouth, Viginia, USA. Official website : missy-elliott.com
1972 : The 1st Gay pride march in England took place.
1977 : Liv Tyler the American model & actress was born Liv Rundgren in New York City, USA.
1978 : The Northern Territory in Australia was granted self-government.
1979 : The WALKMAN portable cassette player was introduced by Sony. The Walkman allowed people to listen to their music cassette tapes while on the move. Sony sold about 200 million cassette-based Walkmans during its popularity over 11 years until 2010, when the production of them was stopped.
1980 : O Canada officially became the national anthem of Canada.
1991 : MiCHAEL LANDON Landon the American actor and filmmaker died 3 months after being been diagnosed with an aggressive form of pancreatic cancer, aged 54 (born in 1936). He was best known for his many popular main roles, such as Little Joe Cartwright in Bonanza from 1959 to 1973, as Charles Ingalls in Little House on the Prairie from 1974 to 1982, and as Jonathan Smith in Highway to Heaven from 1984 to 1989.
1995 : Wolfman Jack the American disk jockey and radio host died from a heart attack, aged 57 (born in 1938).
1996 : Margaux Hemingway the American model and actress died from an overdose of phenobarbital, aged 42 (born in 1954). She was Ernest Hemingway’s granddaughter.
1997 : China resumed sovereignty over the city-state of Hong Kong, ending 156 years of British colonial rule. The handover ceremony was attended by British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Prince Charles of Wales, Chinese President Jiang Zemin, and the U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright.
1997 : Robert Mitchum the American actor died due to complications of lung cancer and emphysema, aged 79 (born in 1917).
1997 : Charles Werner the American editorial cartoonist died aged 88 (born in 1909). He won the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1939.
1999 : The Scottish Parliament was officially opened by Elizabeth II, on the day that legislative powers were officially transferred from the old Scottish Office in London, to the new devolved Scottish Executive in Edinburgh. In Wales, the powers of the Welsh Secretary were transferred to the National Assembly.
2000s / 21st century history on the 1st of July
2002 : The International Criminal Court was established for the prosecution of individuals involved in genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.
2002 : Aircrafts collided in Germany : Bashkirian Airlines Flight 2937 Tupolev Tu-154, and DHL Flight 611 Boeing 757 collided in mid-air over Überlingen, in Germany, resulting in the deaths of all 71 people on board both planes.
2003 : Herbie Mann the American jazz flautist died aged 73 (born in 1930).
2004 : Saturn orbit insertion of Cassini – Huygens began.
2004 : Marlon Brando the American actor and director died aged 80 (born in 1924). Official website : MarlonBrando.com
2005 : Luther Vandross the American singer & songwriter died aged 54, after he had a severe stroke 2 months earlier, due to diabetes and hypertension (born in 1951). Official website : LutherVandross.com
2006 : The Qinghai – Tibet Railway in China was first operated.
2007 : Smoking in England was banned in all public indoor spaces.
2009 : Karl Malden the American actor died aged 97 (born in 1912).
2013 : Croatia became the 28th member of the European Union.
2013 : Charles Foley the American game designer died aged 82 (born in 1930). He was best known as the co-inventor of the game Twister. In 1966 Twister became a sensation when Johnny Carson actually played the game with Eva Gabor, on The Tonight Show.
2015 : Val Doonican the Irish singer died aged 88 (born in 1927). Official website : ValDoonican.com
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