365 AD : Tsunami devastated the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The tsunami was caused by the Crete earthquake estimated to be 8.0 on the Richter scale. 5,000 people perished in Alexandria, and 45,000 more died outside the city.
1600s / 17th century history on the 21st of July
1645 : Qing Dynasty regent Dorgon issued an edict ordering all Han Chinese men to shave their forehead and braid the rest of their hair into an identical style to the Manchus.
1800s / 19th century history on the 21st of July
1831 : The 1st king of the Belgians began with the inauguration of Leopold I of Belgium.
64 AD : Great Fire of Rome began to burn in the merchant area of Rome, in Italy, and burnt completely out of control, for many days, until the fire was brought under control after 6 days. The fire destroyed two thirds of Rome.
1500s / 16th century history on the 19th of July
1545 : Mary Rose the Tudor warship sank off Portsmouth. Mary Rose was the warship of the English Tudor navy of King Henry VIII. The wreck was salvaged in 1982, in one of the most complicated and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeology.
1610 : Caravaggio the Italian painter died mysteriously, aged 38 (born in 1571). His paintings contain a realistic observation of the human state, in their physical and emotional portrayal, featuring dramatic lighting. Caravaggio had a formative influence on Baroque painting.
1800s / 19th century history on the 18th of July
1817 : Jane Austen the English author died aged 41 (born in 1775). She was best known for her 6 major novels, Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, Emma, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion.
1228 : FRANCiS of ASSiSi the Italian Catholic friar was made a saint when he was canonized. He later became one of the most venerated religious figures in Christianity, and became associated with patronage of animals and the natural environment.
1300s / 14th century history on the 16th of July
1377 : King Richard II of England aka Richard of Bordeaux was crowned king at the age of 10. He was King of England for 22 years, until 1399, when he was deposed.
1789 : Storming of the Bastille in Paris, France. Revolutionaries stormed The Bastille, a royal fortress and prison which signalled the beginning of the French Revolution. There were up to 1,000 armed civilian insurgents, 61 French Guards, and 5 artillery pieces, against the Royal government of 114 soldiers. The Insurgents claimed victory with the capture of Bastille. During the fight, 98 civilian insurgents were killed, and 1 soldier killed. Bastille Day became a national celebration in France, which has been celebrated annually on the 14th of July since the historic event.
1800s / 19th century history on the 14th of July
1862 : Gustav Klimt the Austrian painter was born in Baumgarten, Austrian Empire (died in 1918 aged 55).
1863 : NEW YORK CiTY DRAFT RiOTS aka Manhattan draft riots started in Draft Week, with violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, when new laws were passed by Congress in 1863 to draft men to fight in the American Civil War. The riots due to civil war conscription lasted for 3 days until the 16th July, resulting in the deaths of up to 120 people, and 2000 injured people. The riots remain the largest civil and most racially charged urban disturbance in the history of America.
100 BC : Julius Caesar the Roman general and statesman was born Gaius Julius Caesar in Rome, Italy (died in 44 BC aged 55).
1500s / 16th century history on the 12th of July
1543 : King Henry VIII of England married Catherine Parr, his 6th and last wife, at Hampton Court Palace, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, London. Catherine Parr was the most-married English queen, with a total of marriages, and she was the first woman to publish under her own name in England (in English).